The consequences of the climate engineering insanity are already unquantifiable and growing by the day. Though each aspect of this subject is more than enough for an in depth article, there is often a need for more of an overall summary to pass on to those that are not aware of the broader picture.
General considerations Measurements and ideas as the basis for weather prediction The observations of few other scientific enterprises are as vital or affect as many people as those related to weather forecasting. With such information they must have enjoyed greater success in the search for food and safety, the major objectives of Weather disturbances types of storms time.
In a sense, weather forecasting is still carried out in basically the same way as it was by the earliest humans—namely, by making observations and predicting changes.
The modern tools used to measure temperaturepressure, wind, and humidity in the 21st century would certainly amaze them, and the results obviously are better.
Yet, even the most sophisticated numerically calculated forecast made on a supercomputer requires a set of measurements of the condition of the atmosphere —an initial picture of temperature, wind, and other basic elements, somewhat comparable to that formed by our forebears when they looked out of their cave dwellings.
The primeval approach entailed insights based on the accumulated experience of the perceptive observer, while the modern technique consists of solving equations. Although seemingly quite different, there are underlying similarities between both practices.
Because observations are so critical to weather prediction, an account of meteorological measurements and weather forecasting is a story in which ideas and technology are closely intertwined, with creative thinkers drawing new insights from available observations and pointing to the need for new or better measurements, and technology providing the Weather disturbances types of storms for making new observations and for processing the data derived from measurements.
The basis for weather prediction started with the theories of the ancient Greek philosophers and continued with Renaissance scientists, the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries, and the theoretical models of 20th- and 21st-century atmospheric scientists and meteorologists.
In synoptic meteorologysimultaneous observations for a specific time are plotted on a map for a broad area whereby a general view of the weather in that region is gained.
Since the midth century, digital computers have made it possible to calculate changes in atmospheric conditions mathematically and objectively—i. The widespread adoption of numerical weather prediction models brought a whole new group of players—computer specialists and experts in numerical processing and statistics—to the scene to work with atmospheric scientists and meteorologists.
Moreover, the enhanced capability to process and analyze weather data stimulated the long-standing interest of meteorologists in securing more observations of greater accuracy.
Technological advances since the s have led to a growing reliance on remote sensing, particularly the gathering of data with specially instrumented Earth-orbiting satellites.
ANTARES. The main objective of the ANTARES network is the study of long-term changes in coastal ecosystems around South America to distinguish those due to natural variability from those due to external disturbances (anthropic effects). We mentioned it in our weekly weather update, but thought it deserved a little more discussion here given some of the more recently updated forecasts. WEATHER DISTURBANCES Storms are the most dangerous and most feared of all phenomena. There are three types of storms: tropical cyclones, thunderstorms and tornadoes. Typhoons or Hurricanes Typhoons are cyclonic storms that originate in certain areas of the tropics. They are found in all oceans except the South Atlantic.
By the late s, forecasts of weather were largely based on the determinations of numerical models integrated by high-speed supercomputers, except some shorter-range predictions, particularly those related to local thunderstorm activity, were made by specialists directly interpreting radar and satellite measurements.
Practical applications of weather forecasting Systematic weather records were kept after instruments for measuring atmospheric conditions became available during the 17th century. Undoubtedly these early records were employed mainly by those engaged in agriculture.
Planting and harvesting obviously can be planned better and carried out more efficiently if long-term weather patterns can be estimated.
In the United States, national weather services were first provided by the Army Signal Corps beginning in These operations were taken over by the Department of Agriculture in By the early s free mail service and telephone were providing forecasts daily to millions of American farmers.
Weather Bureau established a Fruit-Frost forecasting Service during World War Iand by the s radio broadcasts to agricultural interests were being made in most states. Its application in this area gained in importance after Francis W.
Reichelderfer was appointed chief of the U. Weather Bureau in During World War II the discovery of very strong wind currents at high altitudes the jet streams, which can affect aircraft speed and the general susceptibility of military operations in Europe to weather led to a special interest in weather forecasting.
One of the most famous wartime forecasting problems was for Operation Overlordthe invasion of the European mainland at Normandy by Allied forces. An unusually intense June storm brought high seas and gales to the French coast, but a moderation of the weather that was successfully predicted by Col.
Stagg of the British forces after consultation with both British and American forecasters enabled Gen. Eisenhowersupreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces, to make his critical decision to invade on June 6, The second half of the 20th century saw unprecedented growth of commercial weather-forecasting firms in the United States and elsewhere.
Marketing organizations and stores commonly hire weather-forecasting consultants to help with the timing of sales and promotions of products ranging from snow tires and roofing materials to summer clothes and resort vacations.
Many oceangoing shipping vessels as well as military ships use optimum ship routing forecasts to plan their routes in order to minimize lost time, potential damage, and fuel consumption in heavy seas. Similarly, airlines carefully consider atmospheric conditions when planning long-distance flights so as to avoid the strongest head winds and to ride with the strongest tail winds.
International trading of foodstuffs such as wheatcorn maizebeans, sugar, cocoa, and coffee can be severely affected by weather news. For example, in a severe freeze in Brazil caused the price of coffee to increase substantially within just a few weeks, and in a freeze in Florida nearly doubled the price of frozen concentrated orange juice in a matter of days.
Weather-forecasting organizations are thus frequently called upon by banks, commodity traders, and food companies to give them advance knowledge of the possibility of such sudden changes.
The cost of all sorts of commodities and services, whether they are tents for outdoor events or plastic covers for the daily newspapers, can be reduced or eliminated if reliable information about possible precipitation can be obtained in advance.
Forecasts must be quite precise for applications that are tailored to specific industries. Gas and electric utilities, for example, may require forecasts of temperature within one or two degrees a day ahead of time, or ski-resort operators may need predictions of nighttime relative humidity on the slopes within 5 to 10 percent in order to schedule snow making.
History of weather forecasting Early measurements and ideas The Greek philosophers had much to say about meteorology, and many who subsequently engaged in weather forecasting no doubt made use of their ideas.
Unfortunately, they probably made many bad forecasts, because Aristotlewho was the most influential, did not believe that wind is air in motion. He did believe, however, that west winds are cold because they blow from the sunset.
The scientific study of meteorology did not develop until measuring instruments became available.Extreme storms such as Hurricane Sandy, Snowmageddon, and the tornadoes of have prompted questions about whether climate change is affecting the intensity of weather.
Satellites, statistics, and scientific models are teaching us a lot about what we know and don't know about severe storms. Weather forecasting, the prediction of the weather through application of the principles of physics, supplemented by a variety of statistical and empirical techniques.
In addition to predictions of atmospheric phenomena themselves, weather forecasting includes predictions of changes on Earth’s surface caused by atmospheric conditions—e.g., snow and ice cover, storm tides, and floods.
NOV 12 UPDATE Headlines of late are ample evidence of typical Mars Max phenomena – a surge in murder and mayhem plus "fires, crashes, clashes and explosions". Mass shootings, the most destructive wildfire in California history – it’s all par for the course when Mars is in its Max phase.
No place on Earth is safe from severe storms. Tour the world's wildest weather and learn how to protect yourself with a storm-chasing, prize-winning meteorologist.
By delving into The Science of Extreme Weather that underlies blizzards, flash floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, heat waves, and more, you'll come away with newfound appreciation and respect for Earth's most awe-inspiring phenomena.
A typhoon is simply a rotating sea storm namely because it forms on the ocean.
It must be carrying winds of at least 74 miles per hour ( kilometers per hour). It usually occurs at the northwestern Pacific. typhoons start close to the equator and travel westward, collecting size and intensity as. Description of Space Weather Scale.
Geomagnetic Storms: disturbances in the geomagnetic field caused by gusts in the solar wind that blows by Earth.