Variable is a quantity or a characteristic that has or more mutually exclusive values or properties of objects or people that can be classified, measured or labeled in different ways. Types of Variables Discrete Variable — only a finite or potentially countable set of values.
Definitions Dependent Variable The variable that depends on other factors that are measured.
These variables are expected to change as a result of an experimental manipulation of the independent variable or variables. It is the presumed effect. Independent Variable The variable that is stable and unaffected by the other variables you are trying to measure.
It refers to the condition of an experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator. It is the presumed cause. Cramer, Duncan and Dennis Howitt.
Institutional Review Board Guidebook: Identifying Dependent and Indepent Variables Don't feel bad if you are confused about what is the dependent variable and what is the independent variable in social and behavioral sciences research.
However, it's important that you learn the difference because framing a study using these variables is a common approach to organizing the elements of a social sciences research study in order to discover relevant and meaningful results.
Specifically, it is important for these two reasons: You need to understand and be able to evaluate their application in other people's research. You need to apply them correctly in your own research.
A variable in research simply refers to a person, place, thing, or phenomenon that you are trying to measure in some way.
The best way to understand the difference between a dependent and independent variable is that the meaning of each is implied by what the words tell us about the variable you are using.
You can do this with a simple exercise from the website, Graphic Tutorial. Take the sentence, "The [independent variable] causes a change in [dependent variable] and it is not possible that [dependent variable] could cause a change in [independent variable].
This will help you identify each type of variable. If you're still not sure, consult with your professor before you begin to write.
SAGE,pp. Techniques include associations, sampling, random selection, and blind selection. Designation of the dependent and independent variable involves unpacking the research problem in a way that identifies a general cause and effect and classifying these variables as either independent or dependent.
The variables should be outlined in the introduction of your paper and explained in more detail in the methods section. There are no rules about the structure and style for writing about independent or dependent variables but, as with any academic writing, clarity and being succinct is most important.
After you have described the research problem and its significance in relation to prior research, explain why you have chosen to examine the problem using a method of analysis that investigates the relationships between or among independent and dependent variables.
State what it is about the research problem that lends itself to this type of analysis. For example, if you are investigating the relationship between corporate environmental sustainability efforts [the independent variable] and dependent variables associated with measuring employee satisfaction at work using a survey instrument, you would first identify each variable and then provide background information about the variables.
What is meant by "environmental sustainability"? Are you looking at a particular company [e. Why is employee satisfaction in the workplace important? How does a company make their employees aware of sustainability efforts and why would a company even care that its employees know about these efforts?
Identify each variable for the reader and define each. In the introduction, this information can be presented in a paragraph or two when you describe how you are going to study the research problem. In the methods section, you build on the literature review of prior studies about the research problem to describe in detail background about each variable, breaking each down for measurement and analysis.
For example, what activities do you examine that reflect a company's commitment to environmental sustainability?
Levels of employee satisfaction can be measured by a survey that asks about things like volunteerism or a desire to stay at the company for a long time. The structure and writing style of describing the variables and their application to analyzing the research problem should be stated and unpacked in such a way that the reader obtains a clear understanding of the relationships between the variables and why they are important.
This is also important so that the study can be replicated in the future using the same variables but applied in a different way.Control variables are variables that are kept the same in each trial.
Lastly, the moderator variables are variables that increase or decrease the relationship between the independent and dependent.
Concepts, Variables, and Measurement Some types of alienation may be increased by education (disdain for popular culture) while other forms of alienation (a sense of separation from government) might be decreased by more years of formal education.
I did a lot of this in my master's thesis, which was on political alienation. If you feel. This Thesis - Open Access is brought to you for free and open access by Digital Commons @ East Tennessee State University.
It has been accepted for inclusion in Electronic Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Digital Commons @ East Tennessee State University. Introduction to Empirical Research Two Main Types of Empirical Research Experimental vs.
Non-experimental Research A treatment or intervention is used to cause a hypothesized change to a variables, then these might be causing, or related to the cause, of the lung cancer.
8. Recognize the non-experimental limitations of the method. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License.
correlated variables • Represents correlated variables with a smaller set of “derived” variables. • Factors are formed that are relatively independent of one another. • Two types of “variables”: – latent variables: factors. Comparative Analysis and Case Studies MEVIT - Gunn Sara Enli, Associate Professor more variables of interest than data points.
collection and analysis. (Yin ) 4> Six types of case studies Atheoretical case studies Interpretative case studies Hypothetic-generating case studies Theory-confirming case studies.