Abstract The body responsible for maintaining the overall balance and posture is recognized as apparatus or vestibular system, located in the inner ear and consists of three components: However, when we lost the logical sequence of steps in a walk, or when the wrong steps in a dance about the pace when we lost his balance and stumbled, all this happens by momentary interruption of the integrated circuit of postural reflexes, controlled by the vestibular system. This review is therefore to identify the main actions of the vestibular system in controlling the body posture.
Paralysis of the palate, pharynx, and vocal cord Loss of taste in posterior third of the tongue Contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in the trunk and limbs Tachycardia and dyspnea Palatal myoclonus involuntary jerking of the soft palate, pharyngeal muscles, and diaphragm Kaye, ; Tidy, Basilar Artery Stroke Syndrome Cutting off the blood supply to the entire field of the basilar artery will result in: Bilateral neurological problems, such as bilateral sensory and motor deficits Combined cerebellar and cranial nerve problems Hemiparesis with contralateral cranial nerve dysfunction or with ipsilateral ataxia Behavioral abnormalities Occlusion of the basilar artery is commonly catastrophic, resulting in: Growth of the lesion begins immediately after the onset, and the largest volume of tissue infarction occurs within 10 minutes of stroke onset.
Over half of the total infarct volume occurs within 30 minutes of stroke onset Zhang et al. The acute stage begins six hours after the onset of the stroke. During this stage, release of inflammatory mediators from ischemic brain tissue leads to vasogenic edema with extravasation of water molecules from blood vessels to expand the interstitial spaces.
This is a major deleterious type of brain edema, which persists for several days. Imaging during this period shows the involved area is soft and edematous, with a blurring of anatomic detail. During the subacute stage there is obvious tissue destruction and liquefactive necrosis of the involved brain.
Liquefactive necrosis results in a transformation of tissue into a liquid mass.
In the chronic stage of stroke, the damaged tissue has been phagocytized and there is cavitation with surrounding gliosis, a process leading to scarring ISC, Cell and Tissue Injuries Caused by Strokes Stroke pathophysiology includes ischemic and mechanical damage.
For decisions about acute treatment, the particular stroke syndrome is usually less important than the type of vascular injury that has occurred. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes cause ischemic damage. Hemorrhagic strokes cause additional ischemic damage due to the pressure that builds from the excess blood that has been released into the brain or the cerebrospinal fluid.
This increase in intracranial pressure presents additional problems for the hemorrhagic stroke patient, particularly in the acute phase and within the early recovery period. When cerebral blood flow is reduced, the affected regions of the brain begin to stop functioning and the patient begins to lose the ability to perform the tasks that are localized in those regions.
Complete Global Ischemia If the blood supply to a brain region is cut off entirely, as occurs most commonly during cardiac arrest, cell damage is widespread and neurons begin to die quickly.
The brain uses energy at a high rate, but it can only store a small back-up supply of energy. Complete ischemia immediately decreases the available oxygen and glucose in the affected region of the brain, and without continual nourishment, local neurons will run low on their internal back-up stores of adenosine triphosphate ATP within seconds.
The depolarization also sets off the release of unusually large amounts of extracellular excitatory neurotransmitters. These events cause the influx of calcium ions, which set off an unregulated intracellular cascade of calcium-triggered processes, including the activation of catabolic enzymes, such as proteases, phospholipases, and endonucleases.
In a short time, the neuron self-destructs and dies.Traumatic synovitis and capsulitis is inflammation of the synovial membrane and fibrous joint capsule associated with trauma. Typically, the horse is an athlete and presents with synovial effusion in the acute stage, along with general thickening and fibrosis in the more chronic stage.
Acute inflammation is a short-term process, usually appearing within a few minutes or hours and begins to cease upon the removal of the injurious stimulus. It involves a coordinated and systemic mobilization response locally of various immune, endocrine and neurological mediators of acute inflammation.
Janda’s approach to the evaluation and management of chronic musculoskeletal pain focuses on the importance of the central nervous system in mediating chronic pain through neuromuscular imbalance. Structure vs. Function In musculoskeletal medicine, there are two main schools of [ ].
Hyptertension and Exercise Gavin C.
Hillman and Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Introduction: Hypertension is a widespread health problem effecting nearly 25% of the adult population in . Musculoskeletal responses to acute exercise. Energy Systems in acute exercise. Andrew71 (4) FREE; Respiratory responses to acute exercise.
BTEC Nat Dip Physiology of Fitness. Andrew71 (1) FREE; Cardiovascular responses to acute exercise. High level of work in CV response to acute exercise.
Great presentation for advanced students/5(4). Number: (Replaces CPBs 12, ) Policy. Aetna considers transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS) medically necessary durable medical equipment (DME) when used as an adjunct or as an alternative to the use of drugs either in the treatment of acute post-operative pain in the first 30 days after surgery, or for certain types of chronic, intractable pain not adequately responsive to.