Received Jun 14; Accepted Jan 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The trial is based on four arms: Villages or clusters will be the unit of randomization.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Malaria is a huge public health problem in Africa that is responsible for more than one million deaths annually.
In line with the Roll Back Malaria initiative and the Abuja Declaration, Eritrea and other African countries have intensified their fight against malaria. Methods This study employed cross-sectional survey to collect data from households, community and health facilities on coverage and usage of Insecticide-Treated Nets ITNsIndoor Residual Spraying IRSlarvicidal activities and malaria case management.
Comparative data was obtained from a similar survey carried out in Results In the period —, approximatelyITNs were distributed and 13, health workers and community health agents were trained on malaria case management. IRS coverage increased with the combined amount of DDT and Malathion used rising from 6, kg, in to 43, kg, inincreasing the population protected fromtoDrug resistance necessitated regimen change to chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.
The correlation between malaria case fatality and ITNs, IRS, population protected and annual Malaria control using irs was not statistically significant.
Conclusion Eritrea has within 5 years attained key Roll Back Malaria targets. Background The success in malaria eradication achieved in Europe and North America during the 19th and 20th centuries has not been replicated anywhere in Sub-Saharan Africa and most tropical countries.
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are currently the preferred methods of malaria vector control. In many cases, these methods are used together in the same households, especially to suppress transmission in holoendemic and hyperendemic scenarios. Tanzania has been implementing IRS for malaria control as part of an integrated vector management (IVM) strategy consistently since In , PMI proposes to spray the same nine high burden. Background. Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia.
This is despite better scientific understanding of the biology of the vector, treatment methods and other means of malaria prevention and control. Malaria causes one million deaths annually in Africa especially among vulnerable groups of pregnant women and children under five years of age [ 1 ].
This can be attributed to a number of factors including inadequate preventive measures for the groups at the highest risk of contracting malaria such as pregnant women and children under five years of age and drug resistance [ 2 ]. While, malaria eradication has eluded most tropical countries the use of conventional information sources often underestimates the true incidence [ 3 ].
Resurgences of severe malaria and in recent years, recurrent epidemics invariably involving falciparum malaria have been reported from many tropical countries [ 4 ]. Overtime, there have been several global initiatives to control malaria.
The Roll Back Malaria [ 5 ] and the Abuja Declaration [ 6 ] are the recent attempts to coordinate efforts and provide more resources to reduce the malaria burden in the world.
Mostly, the strategies used aimed at primary prevention through vector control or use of personal preventive methods such as bed nets, mosquito repellants, chemoprophylaxis and finally, through effective case management and medication.
The factors which influence the effectiveness of malaria prevention and control include national policies, community and personal prevention, community awareness, quality of health care, facility and health personnel competence as well as effective monitoring of anti-malarial drug resistance and timely change of drug regimen when resistance occurs [ 8 ].
Falciparum malaria is predominant in Eritrea and is mainly transmitted by Anopheles arabiensis [ 9 ], which is known to be endophilic. Eritrea is inhabited by more than 13 different species of anopheline mosquitoes all capable of spreading the disease and with varying geophysical habitats [ 10 ].
Also, inoculation rates have a high seasonal variability, with peak inoculation rates during the rainy season and minimal or no transmission during the dry season [ 11 ].
Malaria is known to negatively impact on socio-economic development of Eritrea. About 7 to 12 days are lost per episode of malaria, thus having an enormous impact on the productive labour force [ 12 ]. The average cost for treating an episode of uncomplicated malaria is about 2.
Also, inmalaria accounted for Malaria was responsible for In view of the public health importance of the burden of malaria in Eritrea, inthe Ministry of Health organized a national workshop on Roll Back Malaria to develop control strategies and to launch a 5-year Malaria Control Programme.
The outcome of the workshop was a national resolve to control malaria as contained in the Mandefera Declaration and the plan of action for the period — During the period —, malaria control activities had succeeded in developing policies and guidelines, and the training of health professionals on malaria control and treatment resulting into active community agents, distribution of 81, ITNs and 76, houses were subjected to IRS [ 13 ].
During the same year, the country adopted the Abuja Declaration targets and goals for the purposes of programme management. This study is aimed at assessing the 5-year achievements of the Roll Back Malaria Programme in Eritrea, — The specific objectives of this study were to assess trends in malaria morbidity and mortality rates in the country, and the effectiveness of the various public health measures used in Eritrea's Malaria Control Programme.
Methodology Study population Eritrea is geographically divided into six regions or zobas. There are four lowland zobas, two of them coastal and to the east of the country altitude:The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the universal coverage of the population at risk with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide for the control and ultimate elimination of malaria.
Malaria control and elimination programmes should prioritize the delivery of either LLINs or IRS at high coverage and to a high standard rather than introducing the second intervention as a means of compensating for deficiencies in the implementation of the first.
Methods. Secondary data on out-patient malaria case numbers for children-underyears July to June was electronically extracted from the district health management information software2 (DHIS2) for ten districts that had IRS and ten control districts that didn’t have IRS.
The malaria research community is in the process of developing vaccines effective against malaria parasites in order to provide new interventions that will help control and eliminate malaria.
Understanding which immune responses are active in malaria and how they are destructive to parasites is important to the rational development of vaccines. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is one of the primary vector control interventions for reducing and interrupting malaria transmission.
In recent years, however, it has received. The goal of malaria control in malaria-endemic countries is to reduce as much as possible the health impact of malaria on a population, using the resources available, and taking into account other health priorities.