The successful run in London from tounexpected and gratifying as it was, passed peacefully. I got quite a lot of friendly suggestions and criticisms, mostly to do with my shaky science, and I made a number of modifications to accommodate them. In New York, however, a number of commentators expressed profound misgivings about the whole enterprise. With hindsight I think I accept some of these criticisms.
By Thomas Powers 1. Military victory for Hitler's Germany probably never appeared more certain than it did in the early fall ofwhen Werner Heisenberg, on a Sunday evening in mid-September, boarded the night train from Berlin to Copenhagen.
Forward elements of the German army were pressing on Moscow, the Americans had not yet entered the war, German armies occupied most of the rest of Europe, and Britain was trapped on its island. Nazi sympathizers and collaborators were openly active in Denmark, Jewish refugees in Bohr's institute lived in terror of sharing the fate of the Jews of Poland, and even in his own office Bohr worried about informers and microphones.
He refused to have anything to do with the occupation authorities and he would make no exception for Heisenberg's lecture at the German Scientific Institute on the evening of Friday, September But Heisenberg himself had been a friend for twenty years; together they had practically invented modern physics and, so far as Bohr knew, Heisenberg came on no official business.
As a result, over the week of Heisenberg's visit Bohr saw him several times, once when it was just the two of them, alone in Bohr's office. Like Bohr, Heisenberg also feared informers and microphones.
The German hesitated to say what was on his mind; the Dane hesitated to respond. Bohr had already been deeply offended when Heisenberg, over lunch with members of Bohr's institute, predicted that the Germans were bound to win the war, and the private meeting did not go well either.
In some way—how and why was unclear—the subject of atomic weapons was raised. Neither recorded the conversation while it was still fresh. Brief as it was, the private meeting seemed to close the door on intimacy forever.
Over the years Heisenberg tried to reopen that door without success.
In August he visited Bohr at his summer house in Tisvilde but the two men repeatedly failed even to agree on where the conversation took place—Bohr said it was in his office at the institute, Heisenberg remembered that they had been out walking. This time he raised the subject of the meeting with Bohr indirectly, in a letter to the Austrian journalist and historian Robert Jungk, whose book on the origin of atomic weapons, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, argued that the Allies found no large-scale German program to develop atomic weapons at the end of the war for one overriding reason— German physicists had not wanted to give a bomb to Hitler.
In his letter Heisenberg told Jungk the talk with Bohr in "probably started with my question as to whether it was right for physicists to devote themselves in wartime to the uranium problem To an assistant he dictated an angry letter of protest, stating flatly that he was "amazed to see how much your memory has deceived you Five years later, inhe tried again, dictating new drafts of a letter describing his memory of their conversation, and ending each with the "hope that we can talk in greater detail about this Why the world continues to take an interest in a sixty-year-old conversation which lasted no more than a few moments takes a little explaining.
The immediate cause is of course the curiosity aroused by Michael Frayn's long-running play Copenhagen, which attempts to sort out all the things the two men might have said to each other, if they had only once got to talking.
But the play fed on the interest already aroused by decades of speculation, rumor, and one-sided report, beginning in mid-war.
But Bohr could not tell them much beyond the fact that Heisenberg had raised the question of atomic weapons, thereby confirming the Allied assumption that Heisenberg would be close to the heart of any German research effort.
When the war ended Heisenberg and nine other German scientists were rounded up and jailed for six months in a British country house which had been wired for sound.
Friends and mortal enemiesWhen I wrote Copenhagen, about the German physicist Werner Heisenberg’s visit to Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist, in , I thought it unlikely that anyone would want to produce it. Friends and mortal enemiesWhen I wrote Copenhagen, about the German physicist Werner Heisenberg's visit to Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist, in , I thought it unlikely that anyone would want to produce it. Even if I sometimes hoped I might find some small theatre somewhere that would ta. Heisenberg had the chance to work with many of the top physicists in the universe including Niels Bohr and Max Born. Like many of the top physicists of the clip .
Intelligence officials already knew the Germans had had no program to develop atomic bombs, but they feared the Germans might know more than they had let on about bomb design, or might have hidden stocks of uranium, or might be plotting to work for the Russians after their release.
Every two weeks transcripts of their recorded conversations were quoted in reports circulated to American and British intelligence analysts, and in them, inevitably, much was said of importance for the history of the German bomb program. The Germans had just learned about Hiroshima.
Hahn had played no direct role in the bomb project but was horror-struck by the consequences of his discovery. Heisenberg's exact words were not transcribed but the author of Report No.
One of the early American readers of the Farm Hall reports was the Dutch-born physicist Samuel Goudsmit, scientific director of the Alsos mission which had been responsible for collecting the paper record of the German bomb program, and for rounding up the German scientists incarcerated in Britain.
For the remainder of his life Goudsmit took a passionate interest in the reasons for the German "failure.The New York Review of Books March 28, Feature What Bohr Remembered By Thomas Powers 1.
Military victory for Hitler's Germany probably never appeared more certain than it did in the early fall of , when Werner Heisenberg, on a Sunday evening in mid-September, boarded the night train from Berlin to Copenhagen.
Bohr founded the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, now known as the Niels Bohr Institute, which opened in Bohr mentored and collaborated with physicists including Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy, and Werner Heisenberg.
Friends and mortal enemiesWhen I wrote Copenhagen, about the German physicist Werner Heisenberg’s visit to Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist, in , I thought it unlikely that anyone would want to produce it.
Friends And Mortal Enemies Essay, Research Paper Friends and mortal enemiesWhen I wrote Copenhagen, about the German physicist Werner Heisenberg & # ; s visit to Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist, in , I thought it improbable that anyone would desire to bring forth it.
Even if I sometimes hoped I might happen some [ ].
But when the participants in this uncertain conversation were Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, then the import of the event becomes clearer. On the surface, the Dane of Jewish descent and the German Lutheran, separated in age by sixteen years, did not have much in common.
The National WWII Museum Blog is proudly powered by . Werner Karl Heisenberg was born in Wuerzburg, Germany, on December 5, , and grew up in academic milieus, in a family devoted to the humanistic disciplines. His male parent was a professor at the University of Munich and doubtless greatly influenced immature Werner, who was a pupil at the Maximilian Gymnasium.