Essays for civil services pdf

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Essays for civil services pdf

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The origin [1] of the modern meritocratic civil service can be traced back to Imperial examination founded in Imperial China. This system had a huge influence on both society and culture in Imperial China and was directly responsible for the creation of a class of scholar-bureaucrats irrespective of their family pedigree.

In the areas of administration, especially the military, appointments were based solely on merit. This was an early form of the imperial examinations, transitioning from inheritance and patronage to merit, in which local officials would select candidates to take part in an examination of the Confucian classics.

This system was reversed during the short-lived Sui dynasty —which initiated a civil service bureaucracy recruited through written examinations and recommendation.

The first civil service examination system was established by Emperor Wen of Sui. Emperor Yang of Sui established a new category of recommended candidates for the mandarinate in AD The following Tang dynasty — adopted the same measures for drafting officials, and decreasingly relied on aristocratic recommendations and more and more on promotion based on the results of written examinations.

The structure of the examination system was extensively expanded during the reign of Wu Zetian [4] The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty. The system was finally abolished by the Qing government in as part of the New Policies reform package.

The Chinese system was often admired by European commentators from the 16th century onward. Each had its own system, but in general, staff were appointed through patronage or outright purchase. By the 19th century, it became increasingly clear that these arrangements were falling short.

During the eighteenth century a number of Englishmen wrote in praise of the Chinese examination system, some of them going so far as to urge the adoption for England of something similar.

The first concrete step in this direction was taken by the British East India Company in Influenced by the Chinese imperial examinations, the Northcote—Trevelyan Report of made four principal recommendations: It also recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine "mechanical" work, and those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.

A Civil Service Commission was also set up in to oversee open recruitment and end patronage, and most of the other Northcote—Trevelyan recommendations were implemented over some years.

essays for civil services pdf

This was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services even under the stress of two world warsand responding effectively to political change. It also had a great international influence and was adapted by members of the Commonwealth.

The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act established a modern civil service in the United States, and by the turn of the 20th century almost all Western governments had implemented similar reforms.An essay has been defined in a variety of ways.

One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".

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It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. PRIDE: A Curriculum / High School Unit 3 – Student Handout 71 DISABILITY RIGHTS HISTORY TIMELINE - The American School for the Deaf is founded in Hartford, Connecticut.

This is the first school for disabled children in the Western Hemisphere. - The Perkins School for the Blind in Boston admits its first two students, the sisters . UPSC (Union Public Service Commission): The UPSC has released Notification for the IAS Civil Services Examination Dates recently.

The UPSC Conducts Civil Services Exams every year for Recruitment of the Candidates. The Civil Services include IAS (Indian Administrative Services, Indian Forest Services, Indian Foreign Services, Indian Police Services. ESSAYS OR COUNSELS. CIVIL AND MORAL OF TRUTH. HAT is truth? said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer.

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essays for civil services pdf

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