T - Z Glossary:
Students cannot really begin to analyze arguments until they become good at recognizing them. Many students are not very analytical to begin with, so they will require some help in identifying a that something is an argument and b what the various parts of the argument actually are.
Most of what appears below also appears in condensed form on student handout 1 except for the section on implied premises and conclusionsbut you should go over it with your students.
They can follow along on paper. We then begin with some basic technical vocabulary. All men are mortal. Socrates was a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal. The three lines taken together constitute an argument.
Line 3 is the conclusion. Lines 1 and 2 are premises. Now, there are a few important things to remember about arguments. First, arguments can be either really short like the one about Socrates or they can be really long most op-eds are extended arguments; lots of books are really long extended arguments.
But really long arguments will usually be broken down into series of shorter ones. An argument might be such that its premises are false or irrelevant to the conclusion, or that they fail entirely to support the conclusion.
But before we can analyze arguments, we have to identify them. That, in turn, means identifying the premises and the conclusions.
There are several strategies for doing so. The easiest is to examine the text for clues. Unfortunately, not all arguments will contain these helpful indicators, which means that we need some backup strategies. Another useful tool is paraphrasing, or taking a complicated argument and rewriting it to help us see what the claims really are.
And finally, a really useful method is what one could call the 3-year-old approach. If you find an answer, then the answer is a premise and the original claim the sentence about which you asked why is a conclusion.
Repeat the process for each claim. There is, unfortunately, one small complication. Not all arguments have all of the claims stated explicitly. Sometimes there are implied premises or conclusions.The Elements of Reasoning and the Intellectual Standards.
How well a student is reasoning depends on how well he/she applies these universal standards to the elements (or parts) of thinking.
Foundation for Critical Thinking. P.O. BOX • Tomales, CA Building A Better Argument: Building a Better Argument Summary Whether it's an ad for burger chains, the closing scene of a “Law & Order” spinoff, a discussion with the parents about your social life or a coach disputing a close call, arguments are an inescapable part of our lives.
A crucial part of critical thinking is to identify, construct, and evaluate arguments. In everyday life, people often use "argument" to mean a quarrel between people. But in logic and critical thinking, an argument is a list of statements, one of which is the conclusion and the .
Analogical Argument (Argument by analogy) An inductive argument, one premise of which is points out a likeness between two kinds of things. Based on the many similarities which are known to hold between the two, the presence of some additional feature in one thing leads to a conclusion that the other kind of thing shares that additional feature..
Not every analogy is offered as an argument. Critical thinking is a process of testing an argument or observation for validity.
By breaking a concept down into a series of premises and conclusions, you examine the causal relationship between elements of the observable world and aspects of reality you may not yet have considered. Jul 04, · As automation changes the workforce, it's essential to focus on these job skills of the future.
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