Okra is an "Old World" vegetable. The exact place of origin is still matter of debate. Over the centuries, many cultures have embraced okra and used it to create traditional dishes.
Ling-chi Wang Overview China, or Zhongguo the Middle Kingdomthe third largest country in the world, occupies a significant portion of southeast Asia. The land mass, 3, square miles 9, sq.
Three major rivers flow through China: Upon this land, China now feeds its 1.
These minorities have their own history, religion, language, and culture. The official language of China is putonghua or Mandarin guanhuaspoken by over 70 percent of the Han Chinese.
The remaining Chinese, living mostly in southern China, speak the other seven major Chinese dialects: In spite of their mutual unintelligibility, all eight branches of Chinese share the same writing system, the only fully developed ancient system of writing still used.
The earliest examples of this system of Chinese writing appear on thousands of animal bones and tortoise shells from the middle of the second millennium B. For example, the neolithic sites of the Yangshao culture along the midsection of the Yellow River confirm the traditional view that the river basin was the cradle of the Chinese civilization.
Legends have it that Huangdi "the Yellow Emperor" defeated his rival tribes, established the first Chinese kingdom, made himself tienzi, or "The Son of Heaven," and invented many things for the benefit of his people, including clothing, boats, carts, medicine, the compass, and writing.
Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty B. Xia, weakened by corruption in its final decades, was eventually conquered by a Shang king to the east who established the Shang Dynasty B. The Shang achievements can be readily seen from the remnants of its spectacular palaces, well-crafted giant bronze cauldrons, refined jade carvings, and massive written records.
During the Zhou Dynasty — B. In the highly organized feudal society, the Zhou royal family ruled over hundreds of feudal states. Beginning in B.
During these years, the former feudal states engaged in perpetual wars and brutal conquests. During the same time, China witnessed unprecedented progress in agriculture, science, and technology and reached the golden age of Chinese philosophy and literature. Qin Shi Huangdi of the Qin state finally crushed all the rival states and emerged as the sole ruler of the Chinese empire in B.
Qin extended the borders of China; imposed harsh laws; completed the Great Wall; built a transportation network; and standardized weights, measures, currency, and, most importantly, the Chinese writing system.
The brutality of his rule soon led to widespread rebellion, and the Qin rule was eventually replaced by the Han Dynasty B. The Han emperor firmly established the Chinese state under Confucianism and created an educational and civil service system that remained in use until During this period, China came into contact with the Roman Empire and with India.
During the Sui-Tang era, China traded extensively by land and by sea with the known world, and Islam, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity were brought into China. But Tang began to decline toward the end of the eighth century, causing rebellions of warlords from within and invasions from without.
After Tang, China was again divided. In Genghis Khan, a Mongolian leader, began the invasion into China from the north, but the conquest was not completed until under Kublai Khan, his grandson, who established the Yuan Dynasty in China.
The decline of the Ming Dynasty led to the conquest of China for the second time by a foreign power, the Manchu, from the northeast.
Like the Mongols, however, the Manchu conquerors were also conquered and absorbed by the Chinese. Failed reform within the Quing administration, internal pressure through various organized rebellions, external pressure from the major Western powers, and the military defeat by Japan in all led China to become increasingly isolated and weak.
Under the yoke of imperialism and mounting political corruption and internal unrest, especially the Taiping Uprising, the Qing Dynasty collapsed in a revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen in The new Republic of China, under the leadership of Sun, his dictatorial successor Chiang Kaishek, and the Nationalist party Guomindang or Kuomintangproved both weak and corrupt.
From the invasion by Japan, which began into a strong insurgent movement led by Communist Mao Tse-tung, the Chiang regime was severely undermined and eventually ousted from China inretreating to Taiwan under U.Muffins English muffins, crumpets, scones & bannock American muffins Blueberry muffins.
Researching the history of bread-related products is difficult because bread is THE universal food. A very perceptive, interesting piece as usual by Ramin Mazaheri; thank you. What’s especially heinous about China’s opium addiction en masse is that it was the result of Britain’s all-out rape and enslavement rule in India, where people were starved to death by the millions.
Really, the peasants harvesting the opium there were exploited to the utmost. Chinese Americans - History, Modern era, History of chinese immigration, Settlement patterns Bu-Dr.
MODERN ERA The isolation was finally broken when the British defeated China in the Opium War (), forcing China to open its ports to international trade and exposing China in the next years to Western domination. In later medieval thought the earth was a disk - flat and round - so it was theoretically possible to find the edge of the world and break through to the first heaven.
Within the Reformed blogosphere there has lately been put forth some pretty bold claims regarding the structure of the church in the first century, particularly the structure of the Roman Church.